Country Overview
Turkey is a top performer in the Activity driver. This is driven by the high value of PPP deals that have reached financial close in Turkey over the last five years. Despite some financial and political uncertainty since 2017, Turkey has managed to increase investment resulting in some of the highest values of PPP infrastructure deals and private infrastructure investment globally. To build on this momentum, the Turkish government should seek to enhance its planning processes through publishing project pipelines and infrastructure plans, as well as conducting market soundings and assessments.
See Full Overview Data
GDP per capita
8,958 USD
Population
83.0 million persons
Infrastructure quality
74.3 (0-100 best)
Infrastructure investment
2.0% of GDP
Private infrastructure investment
8,038 5-year average, USD millions
Infrastructure gap
1.2% of GDP

Driver Overview

This section shows a country’s rank, ranking change and score for each of the eight drivers. It also categorises each country’s driver performance on a scale from “Emerging” (score from 0-20) to “Global Leader” (score from 80-100).

Driver
Rank
Score /100
Emerging Aspiring Contender Top performer Global Leader
- No ranking change Ranking increase Ranking decrease

Rank

Score /100

Best practice

52
5
47.8
Aspiring
48
2
56.5
Contender
8
17
87.9
Global Leader
70
2
19.5
Emerging
60
1
60.1
Aspiring
8
4
63.7
Global Leader
49
10
28.5
Aspiring
30
3
41.9
Top performer

Metric Overview

Strengths

Value of closed PPP infrastructure deals

Among InfraCompass 2020 countries, Turkey has the second highest value of closed infrastructure deals with foreign equity sponsorship, at 0.96% of GDP. A high value may reflect a strong recent track record of closing PPPs, although this may impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Registering property

According to the World Bank, it takes four and a half days to register a property in Turkey, placing Turkey in the top three for Upper Middle Income Countries. As infrastructure projects often involve property rights, the shorter the time to register properties, the less costly and risky the project.

Private infrastructure investment

At 0.9% of GDP, Turkey has had a high value of private infrastructure investment over the past five years compared to the average of 0.3% for Upper Middle Income Countries. Investment has been across a broad range of infrastructure sectors, including energy, transport, water and health.

Value of closed PPP infrastructure deals

Among InfraCompass 2020 countries, Turkey has the second highest value of closed infrastructure deals with foreign equity sponsorship, at 0.96% of GDP. A high value may reflect a strong recent track record of closing PPPs, although this may impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Registering property

According to the World Bank, it takes four and a half days to register a property in Turkey, placing Turkey in the top three for Upper Middle Income Countries. As infrastructure projects often involve property rights, the shorter the time to register properties, the less costly and risky the project.

Private infrastructure investment

At 0.9% of GDP, Turkey has had a high value of private infrastructure investment over the past five years compared to the average of 0.3% for Upper Middle Income Countries. Investment has been across a broad range of infrastructure sectors, including energy, transport, water and health.

Top Performing Metrics

Top Performing Metrics

This is defined by the metrics with the highest unweighted score out of 100. 

Upper middle income country average

Opportunities to Grow

Published project pipeline

Turkey does not currently publish an infrastructure pipeline of projects. The addition of an infrastructure pipeline could help provide infrastructure participants with a clear indication of prospective and confirmed infrastructure activity.

Published infrastructure plan

Turkey does not have a national or sub-national infrastructure plan. The addition of an infrastructure plan could highlight infrastructure challenges and opportunities for investment, as well as detail the government's planned responses.

Market sounding and/or assessment

According to the World Bank, there is an absence of a market sounding process in Turkey. Adding one could allow the government to determine if there is an interest from investors and lenders to provide commercial financing for projects.

Published project pipeline

Turkey does not currently publish an infrastructure pipeline of projects. The addition of an infrastructure pipeline could help provide infrastructure participants with a clear indication of prospective and confirmed infrastructure activity.

Published infrastructure plan

Turkey does not have a national or sub-national infrastructure plan. The addition of an infrastructure plan could highlight infrastructure challenges and opportunities for investment, as well as detail the government's planned responses.

Market sounding and/or assessment

According to the World Bank, there is an absence of a market sounding process in Turkey. Adding one could allow the government to determine if there is an interest from investors and lenders to provide commercial financing for projects.

Metrics to Improve

Metrics to Improve

This is defined by the metrics with the lowest weighted score out of 100, such that these metrics would have the greatest impact on the overall score.

For metrics that have binary outcomes (yes=100/no=0), no comparative income group average is reported.

Upper middle income country average

Detailed Data

This section shows country data for each of the 41 metrics. Note that all data has been normalised on a scale of 1-100. For raw metric data, please download the complete InfraCompass 2020 dataset. 

Where relevant, some metric scores have been inverted, such that all metrics have positive relationships with good infrastructure outcomes. For example, since lower compliance costs make it easier to invest in infrastructure, the normalised value of ‘number of procedures to start a business’ has been reversed such that lower number of procedures are scored closer to 100, and higher numbers closer to 0. In other words, a score of 0 indicates a poor performance, rather than 0 number of procedures.

Governance Regulatory Permits Planning Procurement Activity Funding Financial
Driver
Rank
Score /100
Emerging Aspiring Contender Top performer Global Leader
- No ranking change Ranking increase Ranking decrease

Metric

Turkey

Upper middle Income Countries Average

Source Link

28.2%

Recovery rate

The recovery rate is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through reorganisation, liquidation or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings.

10.5 (-8.0)
37.7

20.7%

Rule of law

World Governance Composite Indicator reflecting perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. The rule of law reflects whether the law imposes limits of power on the state, private sector and individuals.

43.6 (-2.2)
45.1

18.1%

Post-completion reviews

Whether the country conducts post-completion reviews on infrastructure projects to ensure the forecast outcomes are being achieved.

Yes
-

15.1%

Shareholder governance

Measures the governance practices that protect shareholders through three dimensions: the extent of shareholder rights index (shareholders’ rights and role in major corporate decisions), the extent of ownership and control index (governance safeguards protecting shareholders from undue board control and entrenchment), and the extent of corporate transparency index (corporate transparency on ownership stakes).

60.0
40.2

12.8%

Political stability and absence of violence score

Measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and/or politically-motivated violence, including terrorism. Estimate gives the country's score on the aggregate indicator, in units of a standard normal distribution i.e. ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5.

27.9 (+11.3)
46.1

5%

Infrastructure or PPP agency

Whether an infrastructure agency exists to coordinate an integrated approach to infrastructure delivery and policy.

Yes
-

Turkey

Upper middle Income Countries Average

10.5 (-8.0)
37.7
43.6 (-2.2)
45.1
Yes
-
60.0
40.2
27.9 (+11.3)
46.1
Yes
-

Country Overview Data

Turkey is a top performer in the Activity driver. This is driven by the high value of PPP deals that have reached financial close in Turkey over the last five years. Despite some financial and political uncertainty since 2017, Turkey has managed to increase investment resulting in some of the highest values of PPP infrastructure deals and private infrastructure investment globally. To build on this momentum, the Turkish government should seek to enhance its planning processes through publishing project pipelines and infrastructure plans, as well as conducting market soundings and assessments.
GDP per capita

8,958 USD

Population

83.0 million persons

Infrastructure quality

74.3 (0-100 best)

Infrastructure investment

2.0% of GDP

Private infrastructure investment

8,038 5-year average, USD millions

Infrastructure gap

1.2% of GDP

GDP

743.7 USD billion

GDP growth rate

0.2%

GDP per capita growth rate

-4.8%

Gini coefficient

41.9 (0-100 worst)

Gross Government Debt

30.0% of GDP

Inflation rate

15.7%

Summary credit rating

36.0 (0-100 best)

Unemployment rate

11.9%

Urbanisation ratio

75.0% of total population

Road connectivity

87.1 (0-100 best)

Quality of road infrastructure

5.0 (1-7 best)

Efficiency of train services

3.5 (1-7 best)

Efficiency of air transport services

5.4 (1-7 best)

Efficiency of seaport services

4.7 (1-7 best)

Electricity access

100.0% of population

Electricity supply quality

12.8% of output lost

Exposure to unsafe drinking water

22.7% of population

Reliability of water supply

4.9 (1-7 best)

Digital Adoption Index

0.6 (0-1 best)

Mobile-broadband subscriptions

74.2 per 100 population

Fixed-broadband Internet subscriptions

16.3 per 100 population