Country Overview
In part due to reforms conducted in 2019, Rwanda is a global top performer in permit processes for infrastructure markets, with no costs to start businesses and the highest scores on quality of land administration. This has enabled strong activity growth in Rwanda, with some of the highest levels of infrastructure investment relative to a country’s GDP among InfraCompass 2020 countries although the COVID-19 pandemic may impact these efforts. Despite such impressive activity figures, private sector involvement is minimal. This may be due to low legal protections for stakeholders.
See Full Overview Data
GDP per capita
825.0 USD
Population
12.4 million persons
Infrastructure quality
52.0 (0-100 best)
Infrastructure investment
8.8% of GDP
Private infrastructure investment
7.6 5-year average, USD millions
Infrastructure gap
2.6% of GDP

Driver Overview

This section shows a country’s rank, ranking change and score for each of the eight drivers. It also categorises each country’s driver performance on a scale from “Emerging” (score from 0-20) to “Global Leader” (score from 80-100).

Driver
Rank
Score /100
Emerging Aspiring Contender Top performer Global Leader
- No ranking change Ranking increase Ranking decrease

Rank

Score /100

Best practice

60
2
46.1
Aspiring
34
9
62.4
Contender
3
39
93.7
Global Leader
21
1
92.1
Top performer
35
12
78.3
Contender
30
2
39.4
Top performer
62
3
21.8
Aspiring
55
1
26.5
Aspiring

Metric Overview

Strengths

Cost to start a business

Through reforms conducted in 2019, Rwanda is now the top global performer (along with the United Kingdom and Slovenia) in this metric with no costs to start a business. This ease the entry of new firms.

Infrastructure investment

Rwanda, like many of its African peers, is a global top performer in infrastructure investment as a proportion of GDP, seeing an increase from 4% in 2012 to almost 9% in 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic may impact these efforts.

Quality of land administration

Rwanda is one of three countries with the highest score in quality of land administration out of all InfraCompass 2020 countries. A high quality system ensures reliable and accurate information is available to help governments determine where infrastructure projects can be undertaken.

Cost to start a business

Through reforms conducted in 2019, Rwanda is now the top global performer (along with the United Kingdom and Slovenia) in this metric with no costs to start a business. This ease the entry of new firms.

Infrastructure investment

Rwanda, like many of its African peers, is a global top performer in infrastructure investment as a proportion of GDP, seeing an increase from 4% in 2012 to almost 9% in 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic may impact these efforts.

Quality of land administration

Rwanda is one of three countries with the highest score in quality of land administration out of all InfraCompass 2020 countries. A high quality system ensures reliable and accurate information is available to help governments determine where infrastructure projects can be undertaken.

Top Performing Metrics

Top Performing Metrics

This is defined by the metrics with the highest unweighted score out of 100. 

Low income country average

Opportunities to Grow

Shareholder governance

Rwanda is not considered to have strong legal protections for shareholders. A failure to adequately enforce disclosure and transparency standards lowers the confidence of investors, hurting entities that fund or deliver infrastructure.

GDP per capita

Despite being one of the fastest growing nations in Africa with a long-term GDP growth over 7%, Rwanda’s GDP per capita is low at USD 787. High growth, should it not be overly impacted by COVID-19, can be expected to correlate with greater infrastructure spending.

Private infrastructure investment

Despite high overall infrastructure investment, Rwanda performs poorly on private sector investment in infrastructure markets. At 0.07% of GDP, Rwandan private sector activity in the domestic infrastructure market is the second lowest in Africa. This may reflect government choices to publicly fund infrastructure

Shareholder governance

Rwanda is not considered to have strong legal protections for shareholders. A failure to adequately enforce disclosure and transparency standards lowers the confidence of investors, hurting entities that fund or deliver infrastructure.

GDP per capita

Despite being one of the fastest growing nations in Africa with a long-term GDP growth over 7%, Rwanda’s GDP per capita is low at USD 787. High growth, should it not be overly impacted by COVID-19, can be expected to correlate with greater infrastructure spending.

Private infrastructure investment

Despite high overall infrastructure investment, Rwanda performs poorly on private sector investment in infrastructure markets. At 0.07% of GDP, Rwandan private sector activity in the domestic infrastructure market is the second lowest in Africa. This may reflect government choices to publicly fund infrastructure

Metrics to Improve

Metrics to Improve

This is defined by the metrics with the lowest weighted score out of 100, such that these metrics would have the greatest impact on the overall score.

For metrics that have binary outcomes (yes=100/no=0), no comparative income group average is reported.

Low income country average

Funding capacity:
GDP per capita

Detailed Data

This section shows country data for each of the 41 metrics. The figures in brackets denote the change in score since InfraCompass 2017. 

Note that all data has been normalised on a scale of 1-100. For raw metric data, please download the complete InfraCompass 2020 dataset. 

Where relevant, some metric scores have been inverted, such that all metrics have positive relationships with good infrastructure outcomes. For example, since lower compliance costs make it easier to invest in infrastructure, the normalised value of ‘number of procedures to start a business’ has been reversed such that lower number of procedures are scored closer to 100, and higher numbers closer to 0. In other words, a score of 0 indicates a poor performance, rather than 0 number of procedures.

Governance Regulatory Permits Planning Procurement Activity Funding Financial
Driver
Rank
Score /100
Emerging Aspiring Contender Top performer Global Leader
- No ranking change Ranking increase Ranking decrease

Metric

Rwanda

Low Income Countries Average

Source Link

28.2%

Recovery rate

The recovery rate is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through reorganisation, liquidation or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings.

19.3 (+0.1)
21.8

20.7%

Rule of law

World Governance Composite Indicator reflecting perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. The rule of law reflects whether the law imposes limits of power on the state, private sector and individuals.

52.4 (+0.3)
37.1

18.1%

Post-completion reviews

Whether the country conducts post-completion reviews on infrastructure projects to ensure the forecast outcomes are being achieved.

Yes
-

15.1%

Shareholder governance

Measures the governance practices that protect shareholders through three dimensions: the extent of shareholder rights index (shareholders’ rights and role in major corporate decisions), the extent of ownership and control index (governance safeguards protecting shareholders from undue board control and entrenchment), and the extent of corporate transparency index (corporate transparency on ownership stakes).

0.0
16.3

12.8%

Political stability and absence of violence score

Measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and/or politically-motivated violence, including terrorism. Estimate gives the country's score on the aggregate indicator, in units of a standard normal distribution i.e. ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5.

51.9 (+2.8)
34.0

5%

Infrastructure or PPP agency

Whether an infrastructure agency exists to coordinate an integrated approach to infrastructure delivery and policy.

Yes
-

Rwanda

Low Income Countries Average

19.3 (+0.1)
21.8
52.4 (+0.3)
37.1
Yes
-
0.0
16.3
51.9 (+2.8)
34.0
Yes
-

Country Overview Data

In part due to reforms conducted in 2019, Rwanda is a global top performer in permit processes for infrastructure markets, with no costs to start businesses and the highest scores on quality of land administration. This has enabled strong activity growth in Rwanda, with some of the highest levels of infrastructure investment relative to a country’s GDP among InfraCompass 2020 countries although the COVID-19 pandemic may impact these efforts. Despite such impressive activity figures, private sector involvement is minimal. This may be due to low legal protections for stakeholders.
GDP per capita

825.0 USD

Population

12.4 million persons

Infrastructure quality

52.0 (0-100 best)

Infrastructure investment

8.8% of GDP

Private infrastructure investment

7.6 5-year average, USD millions

Infrastructure gap

2.6% of GDP

GDP

10.2 USD billion

GDP growth rate

7.8%

GDP per capita growth rate

4.9%

Gini coefficient

43.7 (0-100 worst)

Gross Government Debt

49.0% of GDP

Inflation rate

3.5%

Summary credit rating

31.0 (0-100 best)

Unemployment rate

1.0%

Urbanisation ratio

17.0% of total population

Road connectivity

46.6 (0-100 best)

Quality of road infrastructure

4.8 (1-7 best)

Efficiency of air transport services

5.0 (1-7 best)

Efficiency of seaport services

3.2 (1-7 best)

Electricity access

42.7% of population

Exposure to unsafe drinking water

61.6% of population

Reliability of water supply

4.2 (1-7 best)

Digital Adoption Index

0.4 (0-1 best)

Mobile-broadband subscriptions

39.0 per 100 population

Fixed-broadband Internet subscriptions

0.1 per 100 population