Country Overview
Ghana's infrastructure expenditure has continued to grow substantially, thanks in part to greater private and foreign equity investment in addition to public funding. A continued reduction in business start-up costs has also helped foster competition and new investment. Despite increasing investment, Ghana lacks adequate project planning. The introduction of a project pipeline or national infrastructure plan could help focus investment and deliver better quality outcomes.
See Full Overview Data
GDP per capita
2,223 USD
Population
30.2 million persons
Infrastructure quality
46.6 (0-100 best)
Infrastructure investment
5.0% of GDP
Private infrastructure investment
870.7 5-year average, USD millions
Infrastructure gap
2.8% of GDP

Driver Overview

This section shows a country’s rank, ranking change and score for each of the eight drivers. It also categorises each country’s driver performance on a scale from “Emerging” (score from 0-20) to “Global Leader” (score from 80-100).

Driver
Rank
Score /100
Emerging Aspiring Contender Top performer Global Leader
- No ranking change Ranking increase Ranking decrease

Rank

Score /100

Best practice

42
1
52.6
Contender
63
1
49.1
Aspiring
56
5
58.8
Aspiring
28
2
87.9
Top performer
32
14
79.9
Top performer
5
3
65.9
Global Leader
73
12
18.1
Emerging
70
1
20.6
Emerging

Metric Overview

Strengths

Private infrastructure investment

Private infrastructure investment continues to increase in Ghana largely due to its energy sector. There was a USD 550 million Armandi Energy Power Plan investment in 2016, USD 953 million Bridge Power natural gas plan and a USD 580 million concession for its electricity distribution business in 2019.

Financial stability

The passing of the Fiscal Responsibility Act and establishment of a Fiscal Council and a Financial Stability Council in Ghana has helped to restore stability and confidence, following a major banking crisis in 2019. The full long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are yet to be determined.

Cost to start a business

The cost to start a business in Ghana is 12% of income per capita, lower than the African regional average of 20%, easing the entry of new firms.

Private infrastructure investment

Private infrastructure investment continues to increase in Ghana largely due to its energy sector. There was a USD 550 million Armandi Energy Power Plan investment in 2016, USD 953 million Bridge Power natural gas plan and a USD 580 million concession for its electricity distribution business in 2019.

Financial stability

The passing of the Fiscal Responsibility Act and establishment of a Fiscal Council and a Financial Stability Council in Ghana has helped to restore stability and confidence, following a major banking crisis in 2019. The full long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic are yet to be determined.

Cost to start a business

The cost to start a business in Ghana is 12% of income per capita, lower than the African regional average of 20%, easing the entry of new firms.

Top Performing Metrics

Top Performing Metrics

This is defined by the metrics with the highest unweighted score out of 100. 

Lower middle income country average

Financial markets:
Financial stability

Opportunities to Grow

Environmental impact analysis

According to the World Bank, only certain projects may require an environmental impact analysis and it is based on how complex the project is. Undertaking environmental feasibility studies can help countries understand and balance environmental and infrastructure outcomes.

Stocks traded

Ghana’s value of stocks traded is 9%, lower than the Lower Middle Income Countries’ average of 26%. As this indicator measures the liquidity of equities, it is important to infrastructure investors to know they can exit investments at appropriate points.

GDP per capita

Ghana has a low GDP per capita of USD 2,223 but is growing at a long-term rate of 7% per annum due to its oil and gas sector. High growth, should it not be overly impacted by COVID-19, can be expected to correlate with greater infrastructure spending

Environmental impact analysis

According to the World Bank, only certain projects may require an environmental impact analysis and it is based on how complex the project is. Undertaking environmental feasibility studies can help countries understand and balance environmental and infrastructure outcomes.

Stocks traded

Ghana’s value of stocks traded is 9%, lower than the Lower Middle Income Countries’ average of 26%. As this indicator measures the liquidity of equities, it is important to infrastructure investors to know they can exit investments at appropriate points.

GDP per capita

Ghana has a low GDP per capita of USD 2,223 but is growing at a long-term rate of 7% per annum due to its oil and gas sector. High growth, should it not be overly impacted by COVID-19, can be expected to correlate with greater infrastructure spending

Metrics to Improve

Metrics to Improve

This is defined by the metrics with the lowest weighted score out of 100, such that these metrics would have the greatest impact on the overall score.

For metrics that have binary outcomes (yes=100/no=0), no comparative income group average is reported.

Lower middle income country average

Financial markets:
Stocks traded

Funding capacity:
GDP per capita

Detailed Data

This section shows country data for each of the 41 metrics. Note that all data has been normalised on a scale of 1-100. For raw metric data, please download the complete InfraCompass 2020 dataset. 

Where relevant, some metric scores have been inverted, such that all metrics have positive relationships with good infrastructure outcomes. For example, since lower compliance costs make it easier to invest in infrastructure, the normalised value of ‘number of procedures to start a business’ has been reversed such that lower number of procedures are scored closer to 100, and higher numbers closer to 0. In other words, a score of 0 indicates a poor performance, rather than 0 number of procedures.

Governance Regulatory Permits Planning Procurement Activity Funding Financial
Driver
Rank
Score /100
Emerging Aspiring Contender Top performer Global Leader
- No ranking change Ranking increase Ranking decrease

Metric

Ghana

Lower middle Income Countries Average

Source Link

28.2%

Recovery rate

The recovery rate is recorded as cents on the dollar recovered by secured creditors through reorganisation, liquidation or debt enforcement (foreclosure or receivership) proceedings.

24.0 (+0.3)
31.4

20.7%

Rule of law

World Governance Composite Indicator reflecting perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence. The rule of law reflects whether the law imposes limits of power on the state, private sector and individuals.

51.4 (+0.5)
41.5

18.1%

Post-completion reviews

Whether the country conducts post-completion reviews on infrastructure projects to ensure the forecast outcomes are being achieved.

Yes
-

15.1%

Shareholder governance

Measures the governance practices that protect shareholders through three dimensions: the extent of shareholder rights index (shareholders’ rights and role in major corporate decisions), the extent of ownership and control index (governance safeguards protecting shareholders from undue board control and entrenchment), and the extent of corporate transparency index (corporate transparency on ownership stakes).

36.7
34.2

12.8%

Political stability and absence of violence score

Measures perceptions of the likelihood of political instability and/or politically-motivated violence, including terrorism. Estimate gives the country's score on the aggregate indicator, in units of a standard normal distribution i.e. ranging from approximately -2.5 to 2.5.

50.5 (+2.7)
38.7

5%

Infrastructure or PPP agency

Whether an infrastructure agency exists to coordinate an integrated approach to infrastructure delivery and policy.

Yes
-

Ghana

Lower middle Income Countries Average

24.0 (+0.3)
31.4
51.4 (+0.5)
41.5
Yes
-
36.7
34.2
50.5 (+2.7)
38.7
Yes
-

Country Overview Data

Ghana's infrastructure expenditure has continued to grow substantially, thanks in part to greater private and foreign equity investment in addition to public funding. A continued reduction in business start-up costs has also helped foster competition and new investment. Despite increasing investment, Ghana lacks adequate project planning. The introduction of a project pipeline or national infrastructure plan could help focus investment and deliver better quality outcomes.
GDP per capita

2,223 USD

Population

30.2 million persons

Infrastructure quality

46.6 (0-100 best)

Infrastructure investment

5.0% of GDP

Private infrastructure investment

870.7 5-year average, USD millions

Infrastructure gap

2.8% of GDP

GDP

67.1 USD billion

GDP growth rate

7.5%

GDP per capita growth rate

0.3%

Gini coefficient

43.5 (0-100 worst)

Gross Government Debt

64.0% of GDP

Inflation rate

9.3%

Summary credit rating

23.0 (0-100 best)

Unemployment rate

6.8%

Urbanisation ratio

56.0% of total population

Road connectivity

73.4 (0-100 best)

Quality of road infrastructure

3.0 (1-7 best)

Efficiency of train services

1.9 (1-7 best)

Efficiency of air transport services

3.7 (1-7 best)

Efficiency of seaport services

3.1 (1-7 best)

Electricity access

84.3% of population

Electricity supply quality

23.9% of output lost

Exposure to unsafe drinking water

75.5% of population

Reliability of water supply

4.2 (1-7 best)

Digital Adoption Index

0.5 (0-1 best)

Mobile-broadband subscriptions

91.8 per 100 population

Fixed-broadband Internet subscriptions

0.2 per 100 population